Peacekeeping Reports

Below you will find a compilation of reports related to international peacekeeping, including the latest and most relevant research and information from PEP Partners and Academics, as well as the UN, U.S. Government and Foreign Governments.

Note: The PEP report library is a “comprehensive compilation in progress.” We encourage PEP Partners to submit relevant reports for inclusion on the site.

The Latest Reports

  • Peacekeeping Reimbursements: Key Topics for the Next COE Working Group
    By Bianca Selway
    December 12, 2013

    In preparation for the first meeting in three years of the United Nations Contingent-Owned Equipment System (COE) Working Group, which takes place in January 2014, this brief analyzes the key issues under discussion and explains the procedural challenges ahead.

    With UN peacekeeping operating in more complex environments and taking on new tasks, peacekeepers need appropriate equipment to carry out their mandates. A central aspect to equipping peacekeepers is ensuring that member states are appropriately reimbursed for their contributions under a equipment reimbursement system, called the Contingent-Owned Equipment System (COE). Every three years the United Nations conducts a meeting to negotiate the terms and conditions of the financial reimbursements paid to member states for the equipment they provide to UN peacekeeping operations. Preparations and briefings to member states are already underway in New York for the next COE Working Group meeting, to be held January 20–31, 2014. With 98,311 military and police deployed with their related equipment in seventeen missions around the world, the financial implications of these tri-annual discussions can be significant.1 In MONUSCO alone, the
    mission’s annual budget for reimbursements to troop-contributing and police-contributing countries for major equipment and self-sustainment in the fiscal years 2008/09, 2009/10, and 2010/11 were $144 million, $160 million, and $180 million, respectively.2

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | December 19, 2013
  • Strengthening African Peace Support Operations: Nine Lessons for the Future of the African Standby Force
    By Walter Lotze
    December 2, 2013

    Over the last decade, African countries, with the support of international partners, have engaged in a collective effort to develop regional capacities for peace support operations. Under the umbrella of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), the African Union (AU), three Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and two Regional Mechanisms (RMs) have worked to develop the African Standby Force (ASF). Although the AU and the RECs/RMs are progressively displaying their willingness and enhanced capacity to deploy peace support operations, the appropriateness of the ASF concept is under scrutiny. In light of nine principal lessons learned over the last ten years, it would seem appropriate to adjust the ASF concept somewhat, and to make investments in the respective key areas.

    Africa, African Union Peacekeeping, UN Peace Operations | December 19, 2013
  • Police in UN Peacekeeping: Improving Selection, Recruitment, and Deployment
    By William J. Durch and Michelle Ker
    November 8, 2013

    In the past two decades, United Nations police (UNPOL) have become an increasingly visible and important part of UN peacekeeping. Second only to military peacekeepers in numbers, about 12,600 UN police served in UN peace operations in mid-2013. Their roles have evolved over the decades from observing and reporting to mentoring, training, reforming, operating alongside, and occasionally standing in for local police as a post-war government is re-established with international help.

    Authorized numbers of UN police increased by at least 25 percent per year from 2003 through 2007, outpacing the UN Secretariat's capacities for supportive strategic planning and doctrine, selection, and recruitment, while vacancy rates for UN police in missions rose above 30 percent. In this paper, we discuss selection, recruitment, and deployment issues for UN police that are being addressed but are not fully resolved.

    Security Sector Reform, All Regions, UN Peace Operations | November 12, 2013
  • Community Perceptions as a Priority in Protection and Peacekeeping
    By Alison Giffen
    October 17, 2013

    Perceptions influence judgment, decision-making and action. They inform an individual’s decision to flee from or submit to violence, to denounce a perpetrator despite risk of retaliation, or to take justice into their own hands. The perceptions of conflict-affected communities are among the most important factors that peacekeeping operations and other external protection actors should consider when planning and conducting interventions to protect civilians from deliberate violence.

    This is the second in a series of the Stimson Center's Civilians in Conflict Issue Briefs, which address knowledge gaps that undermine strategies to protect civilians. The first Issue Brief, "Community Self-Protection Strategies, How Peacekeepers Can Help or Harm," explores how communities protect themselves and why this is important in protection planning. A download of this issue brief can be found to the right.

    Africa, All Regions, UN Peace Operations | October 17, 2013
  • Peacekeeping without Accountability: The United Nations' Responsibility for the Haitian Cholera epidemic
    By Rosalyn Chan MD, MPH, Tassity Johnson, Charanya Krishnaswami, Samuel Oliker-Friedland and Celso Perez Carballo
    October 15, 2013

    This report addresses the responsibility of the United Nations (U.N.) for the cholera epidemic in Haiti—one of the largest cholera epidemics in modern history. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of the evidence that the U.N. brought cholera to Haiti, relevant international legal and humanitarian standards necessary to understand U.N. accountability, and steps that the U.N. and other key national and international actors must take to rectify this harm. Despite overwhelming evidence linking the U.N. Mission for the Stabilization in Haiti (MINUSTAH) to the outbreak, the U.N. has denied responsibility for causing the epidemic. The organization has refused to adjudicate legal claims from cholera victims or to otherwise remedy the harms they have suffered. By causing the epidemic and then refusing to provide redress to those affected, the U.N. has breached its commitments to the Government of Haiti, its obligations under international law, and principles of humanitarian relief. Now, nearly four years after the epidemic began, the U.N. is leading efforts to eliminate cholera but has still not taken responsibility for its own actions. As new infections continue to mount, accountability for the U.N.’s failures in Haiti is as important as ever.

    Americas, UN Peace Operations | October 18, 2013
  • Corruption & Peacekeeping: Strengthening peacekeeping & the UN
    By Transparency International UK
    October 9, 2013

    Peacekeeping forces and missions need to be made more effective in highly corrupt environments. Recognising the impact that corruption has on a mission’s ability to implement its mandate, the OECD principle of ‘Do No Harm’ highlights the importance of the linkages between corruption and conflict in designing sustainable settlements (see box below). It also addresses the unintended impact international interventions can have in stimulating and sustaining corruption through, for instance, ineffective contracting and procurement practices.

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | October 10, 2013
  • Deploying the Best: Enhancing Training for United Nations Peacekeepers
    By Alberto Cutillo
    August 29, 2013

    Among the many elements that determine the success or failure of United Nations peacekeeping operations, the effectiveness of individual peacekeepers plays a prominent, though often underestimated, role. But “effectiveness” is an elusive concept. It is the product of a number of factors, ranging from the will of peacekeepers to the quality and suitability of their equipment; from timely deployment to strategic planning; from logistics to financial support. Ongoing efforts to improve the effectiveness of UN peacekeeping cover all these areas and more, including training, as a means to ensure that UN peacekeepers are adequately prepared to accomplish their tasks.

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | September 12, 2013
  • Criminalizing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers
    By Carla Ferstman
    August 29, 2013

    Despite peacekeepers’ enormous contributions to and sacrifices for the cause of peace and security, they have increasingly been associated with sexual exploitation and abuse of the vulnerable populations they are mandated to protect. Tragically, they benefit from near total impunity. It is a reality that the presence of peacekeepers in countries with precarious legal and social structures can foster sexual exploitation and abuse.

    In countries as diverse as Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), East Timor, Eritrea, Kosovo, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Somalia, numerous examples of rape, pedophilia, prostitution, and other forms of sexual exploitation and abuse have come to light in recent decades. The effect of such abuses is stark. Not only is it a direct one for the most vulnerable segments of society, its ramifications for the reputation of peacekeeping initiatives and the UN generally are also extremely wide, potentially impeding the organization from successfully carrying out other aspects of its mission.

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | September 12, 2013

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