Peacekeeping forces and missions need to be made more effective in highly corrupt environments. Recognising the impact that corruption has on a mission’s ability to implement its mandate, the OECD principle of ‘Do No Harm’ highlights the importance of the linkages between corruption and conflict in designing sustainable settlements (see box below). It also addresses the unintended impact international interventions can have in stimulating and sustaining corruption through, for instance, ineffective contracting and procurement practices.
Below you will find a compilation of reports related to international peacekeeping, including the latest and most relevant research and information from PEP Partners and Academics, as well as the UN, U.S. Government and Foreign Governments.
Note: The PEP report library is a “comprehensive compilation in progress.” We encourage PEP Partners to submit relevant reports for inclusion on the site.
The Latest Reports
Corruption & Peacekeeping: Strengthening peacekeeping & the UNPublished October 9, 2013
Deploying the Best: Enhancing Training for United Nations PeacekeepersPublished August 29, 2013
Among the many elements that determine the success or failure of United Nations peacekeeping operations, the effectiveness of individual peacekeepers plays a prominent, though often underestimated, role. But “effectiveness” is an elusive concept. It is the product of a number of factors, ranging from the will of peacekeepers to the quality and suitability of their equipment; from timely deployment to strategic planning; from logistics to financial support. Ongoing efforts to improve the effectiveness of UN peacekeeping cover all these areas and more, including training, as a means to ensure that UN peacekeepers are adequately prepared to accomplish their tasks.
Criminalizing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by PeacekeepersPublished August 29, 2013
Despite peacekeepers’ enormous contributions to and sacrifices for the cause of peace and security, they have increasingly been associated with sexual exploitation and abuse of the vulnerable populations they are mandated to protect. Tragically, they benefit from near total impunity. It is a reality that the presence of peacekeepers in countries with precarious legal and social structures can foster sexual exploitation and abuse.
In countries as diverse as Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), East Timor, Eritrea, Kosovo, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Somalia, numerous examples of rape, pedophilia, prostitution, and other forms of sexual exploitation and abuse have come to light in recent decades. The effect of such abuses is stark. Not only is it a direct one for the most vulnerable segments of society, its ramifications for the reputation of peacekeeping initiatives and the UN generally are also extremely wide, potentially impeding the organization from successfully carrying out other aspects of its mission.
Community Self-Protection Strategies: How Peacekeepers Can Help or HarmPublished August 5, 2013
In the face of deliberate violence against civilians, communities often have no one to rely on for protection but themselves. These communities may pursue a wide variety of activities to counter, mitigate, deter or avoid threats. A diverse range of actors has recognized the importance of considering a community's self-protection strategies before intervening. These actors advise that external protection providers should ideally enhance these strategies as appropriate, or at least avoid undermining them. However, protection providers such as United Nations peacekeeping operations are still grappling with how best to accomplish this goal and, as a result, run the risk of endangering the communities they seek to protect.
This brief aims to contribute to what is currently known about self-protection strategies and to raise questions about how peacekeepers can safely and effectively support those strategies. It does not aim to make recommendations about specific actions that peacekeeping operations should pursue, but rather presents options for exploration by peacekeeping operations and for future studies. It is part of a series of publications from a three-year project which explores how external protection actors can safely and effectively engage conflict-affected communities in external protection strategies.
Peace Operations in Africa: Lessons Learned Since 2000Published July 25, 2013
Violent conflict and the power of armed nonstate actors remain defining priorities in 21st century Africa. Organized violence has killed millions and displaced many more, leaving them to run the gauntlet of violence,disease, and malnutrition. Such violence has also traumatized a generation of children and young adults,broken bonds of trust and authority structures among and across local communities, shattered education andhealthcare systems, disrupted transportation routes and infrastructure, and done untold damage to the continent’s ecology from its land and waterways to its flora and fauna. In financial terms, the direct and indirect cost of conflicts in Africa since 2000 has been estimated to be nearly $900 billion. The twin policy challenges are to promote conflict resolution processes and to identify who can stand up to armed nonstate actors when the host government’s security forces prove inadequate.
Not Just a Numbers Game: Increasing Women’s Participation in UN PeacekeepingPublished July 23, 2013
Dharmapuri argues that the focus on increasing the numbers of female uniformed personnel has obscured the equally important goal of integrating a gender perspective into the work of peace operations. Both goals have gone unmet due to three core issues: the lack of understanding about SCR 1325 and the UN policy on gender equality in peace operations; a gap in data and analysis about women’s participation in national security institutions globally and in UN peacekeeping in particular; and the prevalence of social norms and biases which promote gender inequality within the security sector.
The UN Intervention Brigade in the Democratic Republic of the CongoPublished July 11, 2013
After nearly fourteen years of peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the United Nations established a new, more aggressive kind of force for the conflict-stricken nation in March 2013: the Intervention Brigade. Situated within the existing United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), this offensive combat force is designed to break the persistent cycles of violence in DRC and protect civilians by carrying out targeted operations to neutralize rebel forces.
Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding in AfghanistanPublished June 25, 2013
Decades of conflict and instability have had a devastating impact on Afghanistan’s people, economyand environment. But while international attention focuses on the on-going insurgency and conflict between the Afghan national security forces supported by international military forces and a disparate group of anti-government armed groups, at any given time there are numerous conflicts happening at different scales and intensities. Disputes over the management of natural resources such as land, water, timber, minerals and drugs, underlie and drive many of these conflicts, and often serve to exacerbate existing ethnic, political andregional divisions.