Organized crime is now a threat to international peace and security in almost every theater where the United Nations has peacekeeping, peacebuilding, or special political missions. And yet, as demonstrated in this report, of the current twenty-eight UN peace operations, less than half have mandates related to organized crime, and those that do are not well-equipped or wellprepared to face this threat. This undermines theinternational community’s attempts to reduce vulnerability and increase stability in crime-riddled danger zones from Afghanistan to Kosovo, and from Mali to Somalia. Furthermore, the UN Secretary-General has called for crime prevention strategies to be “mainstreamed” into the work of the United Nations, yet this does not yet seem to be occurring.
Below you will find a compilation of reports related to international peacekeeping, including the latest and most relevant research and information from PEP Partners and Academics, as well as the UN, U.S. Government and Foreign Governments.
Note: The PEP report library is a “comprehensive compilation in progress.” We encourage PEP Partners to submit relevant reports for inclusion on the site.
The Latest Reports
The Elephant in the Room: How Can Peace Operations Deal with Organized Crime?Published June 25, 2013
In the Eye of the Beholder? The UN and the Use of Drones to Protect CiviliansPublished June 21, 2013
The debate on the UN’s possible use of drones for peacekeeping took a turn in 2013 when the Security Council granted the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) permission to contract surveillance drones for MONUSCO, its peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This article examines what drone capability may entail for UN peacekeeping missions.
South Sudan: Investigating Sexual Violence in Conflict Proves ChallengingPublished June 17, 2013
In 2009/10, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolutions 1888 and 1960 establishing Women’s Protection Advisors (WPAs). These officials are tasked with building capacity to address conflict-related sexual violence within UN peacekeeping missions and reporting incidents for the monitoring and reporting arrangements as a basis for Security Council action against perpetrators. Today, six WPAs are assigned to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan. The rollout of WPAs in that country has been marked by recruitment delays and training gaps which have ultimately led to poor practice in data collection, endangering sexual violence survivors.
Peacekeeping 2014: An Agenda for Enhanced EffectivenessPublished June 5, 2013
The countries comprising the International Security Assistance Force are preparing for the post-2014 drawdown from Afghanistan in the midst of global financial austerity. Such fiscal and political constraints compel traditional peacekeeping contributors to retreat from their international role, creating a vacuum of leadership and a desire in the U.N. for new contributors. At the same time, international leaders are debating how to stop further bloodshed in Syria, ramping up intervention in Mali, and facing new and complex threats in places like Guinea-Bissau. Additionally, the U.N. needs to reappraise the “Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations,” known as the Brahimi Report, in light of the modern challenges facing U.N. Peacekeeping Operations (PKOs). The time is ripe to discuss how to make PKOs more effective at addressing the increasinglycomplex nature and multivariate types of international security needs.
Trends in Uniformed Contributions to UN Peacekeeping: A New Dataset, 1991–2012Published June 1, 2013
Trends in Uniformed Contributions to UN Peacekeeping: A New Dataset, 1991–2012, by Chris Perry and Adam Smith, is the third paper of the PPP thematic study series. The report introduces the new IPI Peacekeeping Database, identifies key trends in contributions to UN peacekeeping over the past two decades, and suggests opportunities for further research using this online dataset.
Rethinking Force Generation: Filling Capability Gaps in UN PeacekeepingPublished May 8, 2013
Force generation is the process by which the UN Secretariat generates, rotates, and repatriates contributions of military and police personnel and equipment from member states, based on the requirements derived for each peace operation from its UN Security Council resolution. At the UN, force generation is a time-intensive, complex process that must be completed with great speed. It is based on plans developed without a precise understanding of the capabilities available to operationalize those plans. It is a highly technical process requiring intricate knowledge and careful logistics that must also be cognizant of—and sometimes subordinate to—politics. It requires deep institutional knowledge, but is largely conducted by military staff seconded from UN member states for only limited periods of time. Such contradictions highlight the political, bureaucratic, and logistical challenges to effective force generation that are systemic—and, in some cases, unavoidable.
Peace Operations, the African Union, and the United Nations: Toward More Effective PartnershipsPublished April 25, 2013
Both the United Nations (UN) Security Council and the Peace and Security Council (PSC) of the African Union (AU) have a vested interest in conducting more effective peace operations in Africa. Both councils want to build on the various UN-AU peace and security coordination mechanisms that have been established since 2006 and support the implementation of the AU’s principle of “non-indifference.” In many respects, considerable progress has been made with the UN and AU enjoying a deep, multidimensional and maturing relationship. Yet disagreements remain over how best to respond to particular peace and security challenges in Africa, and the AU still suffers from important capability gaps with respect to peace operations.
The Security Council and the UN Peacebuilding CommissionPublished April 18, 2013
This Special Research Report examines the work of the UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)—a relatively recent addition to the UN system—mainly in the country-specific contexts of its work: Sierra Leone, Burundi, Liberia, Guinea-Bissau, Central African Republic and Guinea. It will strive to provide new insights into the important issue of Security Council working methods based on how the Council interacts with the work of the PBC and absorbs this relationship into the broader focus of the Council.