This chapter is part of Top Five Reasons Africa Should be a Priority for the United States. African countries face various security challenges from violent extremist organizations, which are inextricably linked to U.S. national security. In a complex and globalized security environment, having strong and capable partners on the African continent to tackle transnational challenges advances U.S. national security interests. In this regard, the growing capabilities of African countries to respond to regional security challenges are an asset to the United States. Globally, African nations account for 10 out of the top 20 contributors to United Nations peacekeeping missions. Furthermore, African countries and the regional organizations to which they belong are starting to play a larger role in leading peacekeeping operations on the continent through the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), the AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) and the possible African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA).
Reports by region: Africa
Advancing Peace and Security in AfricaBrookings InstitutionPublished April 3, 2013
Promoting Peace in the Post-2015 Framework: The Role of Rising PowersPublished February 1, 2013
The international consultations underway to set out a new development framework post-2015 present an opportunity to reassess and refresh policy approaches to conflict- affected states. For this to be effective, rising powers, such as China, India, and Brazil, must be involved in and contribute to the debate. There is now a real opportunity to develop a legitimate global framework for conflict-affected states, traditional donors, rising powers, and others to agree on a set of genuinely shared goals and indicators that can guide their engagement and facilitate greater cooperation, coordination, and coherence.
Peace, Justice, and Reconciliation in AfricaInternational Peace InstitutePublished January 31, 2013
Ending impunity and promoting justice and reconciliation reflect core objectives underpinning the African Union. Amid renewed debate about justice and peace on the African continent, this report investigates the issue of impunity and its relationship with peace, justice, reconciliation, and healing. The report proposes a draft Policy Framework on Transitional Justice for adoption by the relevant organs of the AU and recommends an advocacy role for the Panel of the Wise in promoting and reinforcing guiding principles on the rule of law and transitional justice across the African continent.
Building Police Institutions in Fragile StatesPublished January 18, 2013
The aim of this report is to look at what the United States has been doing to help reform or transform the police in three African states: Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan. It provides recommendations of what could be done better, or differently, based on an assumption that the federal budget for overseas policing will remain small. The findings are based on meetings with policymakers and other experts in Washington, D.C., as well as interviews with program implementers, government officials, police, and civil society representatives in all three countries.
UN Peacekeeping: The Next Five YearsCenter on International CooperationPublished November 30, 2012
This paper, commissioned by the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the United Nations, analyzes current trends in United Nations peacekeeping and makes predictions about the development of UN operations over the next five years (to 2017). It covers (i) the changing global context for UN operations and efforts to enhance the organization‟s performance over the last five years; (ii) trends in troop and police contributions; (iii) projections about potential demand for UN forces in various regions, especially the Middle East and Africa, in the next five years and (iv) suggestions about the types of contributions European countries such as Denmark can make to reinforce UN missions in this period.
Local to Global ProtectionHumanitarian Practice NetworkPublished October 16, 2012
Promoting local perspectives in humanitarian crises Local to Global Protection (L2GP) is an initiative intended to document and promote local perspectives on protection in major humanitarian crises.
Based on studies in Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Sudan and Zimbabwe, the L2GP initiative explores what people living in areas affected by natural disasters and complex emergencies do to protect themselves. The studies also describe how people and communities perceive the protection efforts undertaken by others such as local authorities, UN, NGOs, etc.
Broadening the Base of United Nations Troop- and Police-Contributing CountriesInternational Peace InstitutePublished September 13, 2012
This report represents the first of a series of publications stemming from the Providing for Peacekeeping project, a partnership with IPI, Griffith University, and the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University.
The report analyzes the practical steps needed to broaden the base of UN troop- and police-contributing countries. It identifies current trends, summarizes the main reasons why states contribute to UN missions, examines factors that might inhibit contributions, identifies potential future major contributors, and addresses some of the major challenges facing the UN as it seeks to find more high-quality peacekeepers.
The paper concludes with recommendations on how the UN might begin to “expand the pool” of contributing countries and improve overall peacekeeping capabilities. Specifically the report makes recommendations regarding how the UN may:
- Provide incentives to encourage more than token troop contributions;
- Improve public diplomacy for UN peacekeeping;
- Improve the way that requests for police and troops are made; and
- Strengthen strategic analysis of TCC/PCCs and develop long-term force-generation strategies.
UN Peacekeeping Transitions: Perspectives from Member StatesInternational Peace InstitutePublished September 13, 2012
This issue brief addresses the nature and timing of peacekeeping transitions, paying particular attention to the perspectives of UN member states and decisions by the Security Council. In light of the impending drawdown or reconfiguration of a number of peacekeeping missions, it identifies a resurgent interest among member states in the challenges posed by peacekeeping transitions.
Preventing Conflicts in Africa: Early Warning and ResponseInternational Peace InstitutePublished September 13, 2012
In the wake of the crises in Mali and Guinea-Bissau in 2012, IPI co-organized a meeting with the Permanent Missions of South Africa and Azerbaijan to address the role and effectiveness of regional and international early-warning and response mechanisms.This meeting note summarizes the discussion at the meeting. In particular it analyzes the AU’s Continental Early Warning System, the UN’s root-cause approach, national early-warning structures in Ghana and Kenya, the role of civil society, and the challenges of adopting a timely response.
DR Congo: M23 Rebels Committing War CrimesHuman Rights WatchPublished September 11, 2012
M23 rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo are responsible for widespread war crimes, including summary executions, rapes, and forced recruitment. Thirty-three of those executed were young men and boys who tried to escape the rebels’ ranks. Rwandan officials may be complicit in war crimes through their continued military assistance to M23 forces, Human Rights Watch said. The Rwandan army has deployed its troops to eastern Congo to directly support the M23 rebels in military operations. Human Rights Watch based its findings on interviews with 190 Congolese and Rwandan victims, family members, witnesses, local authorities, and current or former M23 fighters between May and September.
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