Reports by region: Africa

  • Peace, Justice, and Reconciliation in Africa
    By AU Panel of the Wise
    International Peace Institute
    Published January 31, 2013

    Ending impunity and promoting justice and reconciliation reflect core objectives underpinning the African Union. Amid renewed debate about justice and peace on the African continent, this report investigates the issue of impunity and its relationship with peace, justice, reconciliation, and healing. The report proposes a draft Policy Framework on Transitional Justice for adoption by the relevant organs of the AU and recommends an advocacy role for the Panel of the Wise in promoting and reinforcing guiding principles on the rule of law and transitional justice across the African continent.

    Africa, African Union Peacekeeping | Posted February 5, 2013
  • Building Police Institutions in Fragile States
    By Richard Downie
    Published January 18, 2013

    The aim of this report is to look at what the United States has been doing to help reform or transform the police in three African states: Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan. It provides recommendations of what could be done better, or differently, based on an assumption that the federal budget for overseas policing will remain small. The findings are based on meetings with policymakers and other experts in Washington, D.C., as well as interviews with program implementers, government officials, police, and civil society representatives in all three countries.

    Africa, Protection of Civilians, Security Sector Reform, UN Peace Operations | Posted January 29, 2013
  • UN Peacekeeping: The Next Five Years
    By Richard Gowan and Megan Gleason
    Center on International Cooperation
    Published November 30, 2012

    This paper, commissioned by the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the United Nations, analyzes current trends in United Nations peacekeeping and makes predictions about the development of UN operations over the next five years (to 2017). It covers (i) the changing global context for UN operations and efforts to enhance the organization‟s performance over the last five years; (ii) trends in troop and police contributions; (iii) projections about potential demand for UN forces in various regions, especially the Middle East and Africa, in the next five years and (iv) suggestions about the types of contributions European countries such as Denmark can make to reinforce UN missions in this period.

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | Posted November 30, 2012
  • Local to Global Protection
    Humanitarian Practice Network
    Published October 16, 2012

    Promoting local perspectives in humanitarian crises Local to Global Protection (L2GP) is an initiative intended to document and promote local perspectives on protection in major humanitarian crises.

    Based on studies in Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Sudan and Zimbabwe, the L2GP initiative explores what people living in areas affected by natural disasters and complex emergencies do to protect themselves. The studies also describe how people and communities perceive the protection efforts undertaken by others such as local authorities, UN, NGOs, etc.

    PoC with Responsibility to Protect, Protection of Civilians, All Regions | Posted October 16, 2012
  • Broadening the Base of United Nations Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries
    By Alex J. Bellamy and Paul Williams
    International Peace Institute
    Published September 13, 2012

    This report represents the first of a series of publications stemming from the Providing for Peacekeeping project, a partnership with IPI, Griffith University, and the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University.

    The report analyzes the practical steps needed to broaden the base of UN troop- and police-contributing countries. It identifies current trends, summarizes the main reasons why states contribute to UN missions, examines factors that might inhibit contributions, identifies potential future major contributors, and addresses some of the major challenges facing the UN as it seeks to find more high-quality peacekeepers.

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how the UN might begin to “expand the pool” of contributing countries and improve overall peacekeeping capabilities. Specifically the report makes recommendations regarding how the UN may:

    - Provide incentives to encourage more than token troop contributions;

    - Improve public diplomacy for UN peacekeeping;

    - Improve the way that requests for police and troops are made; and

    - Strengthen strategic analysis of TCC/PCCs and develop long-term force-generation strategies.

    Security Sector Reform, All Regions, UN Peace Operations | Posted September 13, 2012
  • UN Peacekeeping Transitions: Perspectives from Member States
    By Arthur Boutellis
    International Peace Institute
    Published September 13, 2012

    This issue brief addresses the nature and timing of peacekeeping transitions, paying particular attention to the perspectives of UN member states and decisions by the Security Council. In light of the impending drawdown or reconfiguration of a number of peacekeeping missions, it identifies a resurgent interest among member states in the challenges posed by peacekeeping transitions.

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | Posted September 13, 2012
  • Preventing Conflicts in Africa: Early Warning and Response
    By Mireille Affa’a-Mindzie
    International Peace Institute
    Published September 13, 2012

    In the wake of the crises in Mali and Guinea-Bissau in 2012, IPI co-organized a meeting with the Permanent Missions of South Africa and Azerbaijan to address the role and effectiveness of regional and international early-warning and response mechanisms.This meeting note summarizes the discussion at the meeting. In particular it analyzes the AU’s Continental Early Warning System, the UN’s root-cause approach, national early-warning structures in Ghana and Kenya, the role of civil society, and the challenges of adopting a timely response.

    Africa | Posted September 13, 2012
  • DR Congo: M23 Rebels Committing War Crimes
    Human Rights Watch
    Published September 11, 2012

    M23 rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo are responsible for widespread war crimes, including summary executions, rapes, and forced recruitment. Thirty-three of those executed were young men and boys who tried to escape the rebels’ ranks.  Rwandan officials may be complicit in war crimes through their continued military assistance to M23 forces, Human Rights Watch said. The Rwandan army has deployed its troops to eastern Congo to directly support the M23 rebels in military operations.  Human Rights Watch based its findings on interviews with 190 Congolese and Rwandan victims, family members, witnesses, local authorities, and current or former M23 fighters between May and September.

    Click here for full text.

    Africa | Posted September 11, 2012
  • UN Peacekeeping Transitions: Perspectives from Member States
    International Peace Institute
    Published September 4, 2012

    This issue brief addresses the nature and timing of peacekeeping transitions, paying particular attention to the perspectives of UN member states and decisions by the Security Council. In light of the impending drawdown or reconfiguration of a number of peacekeeping missions, it identifies a resurgent interest among member states in the challenges posed by peacekeeping transitions.

    Amid much debate over the financing of peacekeeping missions and responsibility for peacekeeping versus peacebuilding, the report makes a number of recommendations for member states to consider:

    - Discussions on transitions need to focus on deciding where and when peacekeeping is the appropriate tool, not just on the cost implications of drawdowns and withdrawals.
    - Despite appearances, thematic debates that include peacebuilding concerns are particularly relevant to Security Council practices, as peacebuilding activities can create the conditions that allow for a successful reconfiguration or withdrawal of peacekeepers.
    - Discussions on transitions present an opportunity to involve host-country authorities and develop sustainable transition plans from the start of a mission, rather than only as it ends.

    A summary of a roundtable discussion held at IPI on the drawdown or withdrawal of peacekeeping and special political missions is also available in a meeting note entitled UN Transitions: Mission Drawdown or Withdrawal.

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | Posted September 4, 2012
  • The Role of UN Peacekeeping Missions in the Protection of Civilians
    Oxfam International
    Published September 4, 2012

    The UN Security Council’s (UNSC) role, to maintain international security, includes protecting civilians in armed conflict. Made explicit in 2009, the UNSC noted that "the deliberate targeting of civilians… may constitute a threat to international peace and security, and [the UNSC] reaffirms… its readiness to consider such situations and, where necessary, to adopt appropriate steps."

    States bear the primary responsibility for protecting their civilians, even though they may be unable or unwilling to do this. For this reason, the UNSC has developed means to improve the protection of civilians (PoC), including through UN peacekeeping missions. Since 1999, a number of missions have been explicitly mandated"‘to afford protection to civilians under imminent threat of physical violence."

    Conflict-affected communities where there is a peacekeeping mission present expect to be protected and consistently request better protection. This requires an ongoing effort by the UNSC, the UN Department for Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), Troop and Police Contributing Countries (TCCs and PCCs), and individual UN missions. There have been significant normative and technical developments to explain what PoC means and how PoC mandates should be implemented. There remain, however, many challenges to implement these mandates and guidelines to effectively protect civilians on the ground.

    Peacekeeping is a temporary solution. But it can help the state take on its responsibility to protect civilians, by supporting security sector reform and rule of law development.

    All Regions, UN Peace Operations | Posted September 4, 2012

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