This paper is a follow-up case study to Oxfam America’s 2009 report on US security assistance and the protection of civilians. In that report, Oxfam America examined the importance of SSR and the evolution of US policy and doctrine and then surveyed US practice. DRC is an important and useful case study of US implementation of SSR because the US government has committed to improving the security of the Congolese and to helping promote development and democracy in DRC, and SSR is crucial to solving the problems in the country. The US has provided tens of millions of dollars in support of armed forces and police reform in the DRC, yet the impact of the US efforts has not been measured and thus is not actually known. Moreover, notwithstanding these and other donor efforts, it is clear that true reform in the DRC security sector has yet to occur: “No progress at all,” according to one senior MONUC official. True reform, including the training of all security forces in civilian protection and human rights principles and the implementation of that training in field operations, plus effective application of military justice and measures to remove known human rights abusers from the army and the implementation of a judicial system based on the rule of law, is crucial to improving the humanitarian situation in DRC and moving DRC to a position of stability, economic development, and robust democracy.
Below you will find a compilation of reports related to international peacekeeping, including the latest and most relevant research and information from PEP Partners and Academics, as well as the UN, U.S. Government and Foreign Governments.
Note: The PEP report library is a “comprehensive compilation in progress.” We encourage PEP Partners to submit relevant reports for inclusion on the site.
The Latest Reports
No Will, No Way: US-funded Security Sector Reform in the Democratic Republic of the CongoPublished October 26, 2010
UN Panels of Experts and UN Peace Operations: Exploiting Synergies for PeacebuildingPublished October 20, 2010
Drawing on research and interviews conducted in Côte d'Ivoire, DRC, Liberia, Washington, and New York, UN Panels of Experts and UN Peace Operations: Exploiting Synergies for Peacebuilding examines cooperation between Panels and peace operations for those countries, the potential synergies that cooperation already brings to international peacebuilding efforts in those settings, and the challenges that sanctions present for donors.
Because the various Security Council resolutions that mandate sanctions, peace operations and Panels of Experts clearly delineate mutually reinforcing objectives, this report works from the assumption that increased cooperation between Panels and peace operations would advance the cause of peace and security in the places where these entities both work.
Since 2006, the Future of Peace Operations program has contributed to independent research on improving the United Nations' capacity to build the rule of law, especially in countries where it deploys peace support operations. In particular, Stimson has looked at the role of spoilers in derailing peace processes and the operational responses at the UN Security Council's disposal in responding to such threats.
Stimson's initial research found that the Security Council frequently uses two distinct but related operational tools: UN peace support operations and Panels of Experts, which are small investigative teams appointed to monitor targeted sanctions imposed on peace spoilers. In its previous report on this topic, Targeting Spoilers: the Role of United Nations Panels of Experts, Alix Boucher and Victoria Holt shed light on these expert Panels and the challenges they face, and offered suggestions for ensuring that their numerous findings and recommendations receive follow up.
Based on that research, this report highlights the benefits and challenges of cooperation, and offers recommendations for improving the way these two Security Council tools work with each other, with Member States, and with the Security Council. In doing so, the report seeks to catalyze a more strategic approach to peacebuilding by the Security Council.
Freedom from Fear: Regional action to protect civilians in LRA-affected areasPublished October 15, 2010
Tens of thousands of people will remain without life-saving aid unless the UN mission in DR Congo steps up its presence in areas brutalized by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). The horrific experiences of the communities in the Great Lakes directly affected by the LRA demand that the UN bear three harsh realities in mind:
1. The LRA is a regional problem, requiring a concerted regional and international response.
2. The problem is not going to go away: a failure to direct efforts and resources towards it now will only increase the scale of the human catastrophe to be addressed later.
3. Current efforts are ineffective at protecting civilians and can even inadvertently put civilians at greater risk: the protection of the civilians caught up in this crisis cannot be left to chance – or to the communities themselves.
That the US government, the World Bank, the UN, AU and EU have recently moved the issue of the LRA higher up their respective agendas is potentially good news for the many LRA-affected communities. Turning that potential into reality, however, is going to take considerably greater political will, coordination and far-sightedness than has so far characterised the international and regional response to the LRA.
Contact Group members should promote coordinated national and international action to address the threat the LRA poses to civilians across the region.
Make better use of existing resources: peacekeeping missions must review their strategies in response to the LRA threat and establish effective cross-mission coordination on protecting civilians; coordination with humanitarian actors on security must be improved to enable an expansion of assistance; national armies must be adequately supported and disciplined to offer increased protection to civilians; revive the role of an AU or UN Special Envoy to LRA-affected areas as part of enhanced non-military action to promote disarmament.
Increase resources commensurate with needs: more international and national protection actors must be deployed to the areas where the civilian population is most at risk; the delivery of humanitarian assistance should be significantly increased; the structural vulnerabilities of the affected areas should be addressed through a targeted road-building/road rehabilitation program, combined with a major expansion of communications infrastructure (mobile phone coverage); early warning systems linked to improved response capacity are needed, with regard for the risks they can pose to civilians.
Address the risks of any military action: civilian protection should be at the centre of international and regional action to address the threat of the LRA, under a shared strategy involving national armed forces and peacekeeping missions in the region that takes account of the capacities of each.
Anna Ridout, Press Officer, Oxfam, l: +44 (0)1865 473415, m: +44 (0)7766 443506, email@example.com
Louis Belanger, Oxfam Humanitarian Media Lead, t: +1 212 687 2678; m: +1 917 224 0834 firstname.lastname@example.org, @louis_press
DR Congo: Managing the TransitionPublished September 29, 2010
Discussions about the future of peacekeeping in the DR Congo and the modalities of withdrawal are happening while the east of the country remains steeped in conflict. Joint efforts by the UN stabilization mission and the Congolese Government to map remaining challenges have been rushed and incoherent. Assessment methodology was designed without reference to key actors, both inside and outside the mission. As the UN Security Council begins discussing the withdrawal of MONUSCO (formerly MONUC) forces, the assessment planning process must be made more consistent, UN agencies and civil society must be given a voice in the process, and critical civilian efforts must continue to be developed and supported.
Click on the link below to download the full report.
Enhancing United Nations Capacity To Support Post-Conflict Policing And Rule Of Law Revised/UpdatedPublished September 27, 2010
Revised and updated in 2010 by editors William Durch and Madeline England
This report provides an overview of recent trends in the use of police in UN peacekeeping missions, assesses chronic challenges, and lays out a series of proposals aimed at improving UN capacity to support post-conflict policing and the rule of law. It concludes that the UN's historically ad hoc approach-driven in large part by resource constraints, but also by a lack of vision that has only recently begun to be corrected-is no longer acceptable, if it ever was. It therefore recommends new approaches for more systematic planning, recruiting, and rapid deployment of larger numbers of quality UN police (UNPOL) and other rule of law personnel for integrated peace operations. These include a standing UN Rule of Law Capacity, a complementary ready reserve of police and other criminal justice personnel, and a Senior Reserve Roster of experienced, retired police officers, judges, prosecutors, and defense lawyers. The study provides a description of these proposed reforms, including detailed cost estimates, and concludes that the implementation of such initiatives would dramatically improve the UN's ability to carry out its mandates to support post-conflict policing and rule of law.
This report is one of five FOPO studies on essential aspects of improving rule of law in post-conflict states. Other studies focus on improving border control and border security, fighting corruption in war-torn states, increasing accountability for non-military personnel in peace operations, and using UN Panels of Experts more effectively to combat spoilers and monitor targeted sanctions.
The original version of Enhancing United Nations Capacity was issued November 2007 with co-authors Joshua Smith, Victoria Holt, and William Durch.
Always on the Run: The Vicious Cycle of Displacement in Eastern CongoPublished September 23, 2010
This 88-page report documents abuses against the displaced by all warring parties in all phases of displacement – during the attacks that uproot them; after they have been displaced and are living in the forests, with host families, or in camps; and after they or the authorities decide it is time for them to return home. The report is based on interviews with 146 people displaced from their homes in eastern Congo, as well as government officials, humanitarian workers, and journalists.
Enhancing Civilian Protection in Peace Operations: Insights from AfricaPublished September 21, 2010
Recent incidents of systematic rapes in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and continued mass dislocations of populations in Somalia and Sudan have again thrust the issue of international peace operations’ responsibility for providing civilian protection onto news headlines around the world. With 40 peace operations in 14 countries since 2000, Africa is at the forefront of grappling with the civilian protection issue.
In this ACSS Research Paper, Paul Williams assesses the role civilian protection plays in peace operations, lessons learned from past civilian protection efforts, progress that has been made, and key obstacles that remain in effectively providing protection to civilians caught up in armed conflict. Drawing on this experience, the paper puts forth ten priorities for improving civilian protection in ongoing and future peace operations – in Africa and beyond.
ACSS's Research Papers present policy-relevant analysis on topics of pressing importance to Africa’s security.
African Institutions in a Changing Regional and Global Security EnvironmentPublished September 15, 2010
This meeting note captures the insights and experiences shared by representatives from the AU, UN, and related academic think tanks at the fifteenth annual IPI New York Seminar, which had a principal focus on the emergence and evolution of a new African peace and security architecture for the continent. The UN and AU agreed in 2007 on a Ten-Year Capacity-Building Programme to assist the African Union in responding more effectively to ongoing and potential conflicts. While these efforts are underway, eight years after the first session of the African Union Assembly in July 2002, conflict continues on the continent, most dramatically in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. While there has been progress in recent years -- many seemingly intractable conflicts have ended; standards of living and both infant and maternal mortality have improved; HIV/AIDS infection has begun to be reduced -- participants felt that it is increasingly important to develop a multilateral system to meet the many challenges Africa continues to face.
The United Nations Security Council and Civil War: First Insights from a New DatasetPublished September 7, 2010
This new IPI report examines trends in how the Security Council has engaged with civil wars since 1989 and the gradual evolution of the Council’s civil-war response strategies, including where and when it chose to engage. The study reveals a comprehensive change in the way the Council has applied its mandate under the United Nations Charter to situations of internal conflict.
The report represents the most comprehensive analysis to date of the Security Council’s approaches to resolving civil wars during the past two decades. It is the first publication produced by IPI’s multiyear research project on Compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolutions in Civil Wars.
Future analysis by this project will seek to provide answers to two questions: To what extent do civil-war parties comply with demands issued by the Security Council? And what factor or combination of factors best explains the variance in the level of compliance — e.g., conflict settings, conflict management strategies, or political dynamics within the Security Council?
In the future, the project will produce a book combining rigorous quantitative analyses and detailed case studies on this very important topic.
IPI will also publish a searchable online database of all Security Council resolutions adopted in the context of civil wars between 1989 and 2006. The IPI Security Council Compliance Database will document the Security Council’s conflict-management efforts and the civil-war parties’ responses to each individual demand addressed to them during the first fifteen years after the Cold War, from 1989 to 2003.
For more information about this ongoing research project, please go to http://www.ipinst.org/securitycouncilcompliance.
Searching for Stability: The U.S. Development of Constabulary Forces in Latin America and the PhilippinesPublished July 12, 2010
The Combat Studies Institute is pleased to present Occasional Paper 30, Searching for Stability: The US Development of Constabulary Forces in Latin America and the Philippines, by Dr. Richard L. Millett. In this study, Dr. Millett offers a survey of U.S. military involvement in the training of indigenous security forces in the Philippines and the Caribbean Basin in the 20th century. Given the dramatic increase of these types of efforts in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other countries, this study provides relevant insights for current military professionals facing the daunting challenges that are inherent to the training and advising of foreign police and military forces.